What is an Electric Motor?
An electric motor converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. In other words, the rotational force producing devices are known as the motor. The operation of the electric motor depends primarily on the interaction between the magnetic and the electric field. Usually, this conversion is achieved by producing a magnetic field through a current that flows in one or more coils.
Direct current (DC) sources, e.g. batteries, motor cars or rectifiers, and alternating current (AC) sources, e.g. a power grid, an inverter or an electric generator can power electric motors. An electrical generator is identical mechanically to an electric motor, but is in the opposite direction and accepts mechanical (for example, flowing water) energy and converts that mechanical energy into electricity.
What explains the need for Electric Motors?
Electric motors are the inseparable component of equipment for heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) equipment. They are also used throughout industries in several applications, including house appliances, industrial machinery, and motor vehicles. The safety and functionalities of motors have improved significantly with improved insulation and operational efficiency, leading to increasing demand across multiple industries.
Almost all aspects of modern living are affected by electric motors. Refrigerators, vacuum cleaners, and other electric motors are used to convert electrical energy into useful mechanical energy by air conditioning and air conditioners, fans, computer hard drives, automated car windows. Electric motors also run a very wide range of industrial processes, apart from the ordinary appliances that are used every day.
Electric Motors for the contemporary era
- Heating Ventilating and Cooling (HVAC) Equipment
At present, there are thousands of fans and pumps used in building workshops, warehouses, hotels, and hospitals to handle heating, cool the air and pump fresh water. Furthermore, thanks to advanced functionality and high reliability, power electronics opens its way into many sectors, making energy efficient buildings easier to build. Electric motors with the potential to save up to 40% energy are highly powerful. The demand for electric motors is, therefore, increasing for applications in different residential buildings, office buildings, and hotels.
- Motor Vehicles
In recent years, demand for electric motor vehicles has been explosive and electric motors are one of the main components. Seven million deaths worldwide are caused by air pollution according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In order to curb this situation, governments have introduced various electric vehicle standards in several countries and offer subsidies to help promote the acceptance of electric vehicles. For example, the Chinese government in 2017 allocated more than $10,000 per vehicle in subsidy, which resulted in an increase of over 42 percent compared to 2016 in electric vehicle adoption by the country. Since the electric motor is an integral part of an electric vehicle, the growing demand in several countries for an electric motor is fueling.
- Industrial Machinery
The main growth-inducing factor of the industry is the expansion of industrial automation along with technological advances. In addition, the trend in the large-scale industry is boosting demand to replace gas turbines by electric motors. Every machine can be powered with its own electric motor with the electric engine and provide easy control at the point of operation. This increased the efficiency of the power transmission and improved safety and production facility. In the grain and pumping water processing, industrial electrical motors removed the animal and hydraulic power. The electric motor replaced the steam motors for locomotives, steam vessels, and industrial power stations.
Components of Electric Motor
- AC Motor
The alternating current motor is used for the conversion of AC power and mechanical energy. The structure is simple and strong which is very easy so that high speed and high voltage, high current and high capability motors can easily be produced which is different compared to direct current (DC) engines.
An AC motor is an alternating current (AC) powered electrical engine. The AC motor commonly consists of two basic components, an external stator with rotating magnetic fields provided with alternating current, and an internal rotor attached to the output shaft that produces a second magnetic field. Permanent magnets, reluctance or DC or AC electrical windings may be used to generate the rotor magnet field.
- DC Motor
DC is a rotating motor that converts DC energy into mechanical energy (DC motor) or mechanical energy into DC energy. When the DC motor is being used as a DC motor, it converts electric energy into mechanical energy and on the other hand, it converts mechanical energy into electric energy if the DC motor is running as a generator.
The DC motor has two main components: stator and rotor. The DC motor part stationary during the motor is called a stator and the stator’s function is to generate a magnetic field. The part of the DC motor that runs with motor is known as a rotor and its principal function is to produce the electromagnetic torque and electric motor force, and it is also called the motor DC motor hub for conversion of power, which is why it is also known as the armature.
In a Nutshell
The electric motor is all around. This is especially true in the age of electric cars, wind turbines and solar tracking systems. Over 60% of all electricity used in the industrial sector is utilized by electric engines.
Air conditioning, coolers, laundries, and dryers in tens of millions of homes represent a major electric load. The issue of electric engine technology is therefore not a small one. A few percentages of efficiency points can result in a considerable decrease in electricity consumption. This is why the Energy Department spends a lot of time and money on the final bit of electric motor efficiency.
Now that electric vehicles are being strongly taken over around the globe, and every major operator either tries to catch up or tries to keep up — depending on their location— there is a kind of second generation of engines and inverters, in which suppliers of these components really do work with efficiency, noise and performance. The efficiency, noise and performance in vehicles which will come out in the next couple of years have been significantly improved. At the same time, some electrical power train products have high integration levels and tighter packaging. The Global Electric Motor Market is estimated to grow at a CAGR of 7.4% in the coming years.